My name is Sajjad, I was born in October 1982 in Ahvaz in Southwest Iran. I am the eldest of the three children of Soraya Darabi and Mohammad Khaksari, who are leading union and human rights activists.

My parents are both journalists and teacher union activists. My father initiated in September 1999 the first non-governmental association of Iranian education workers after the overthrow of the Shah in 1979. In 2003, he also realised his dream as a man who graduated in sociology and journalism: he created a weekly independent magazine focusing on education and trade unions. The journal was called “Teacher's Pen" or Ghalame Moallem (قلم معلم) in Persian.

My mother is also a teacher and a journalist. She and my father worked together in the umbrella teacher association (Coordinating Council of the Iranian Teacher Associations affiliated to Education International) and as editor in chief and editor of the Teachers Pen. In 2007 my mother was active in an association called "Madarane Solh" (the Mothers of Peace), collaborating with Nobel Peace Prize Iranian lawyer Shirin Ebadi in the Centre for the Defence of Human Rights (DHRC) until its shutdown one year later by the regime of President Ahmadinejad. 

Both my parents have suffered years of intimidation, court charges and detentions due to their roles at the helm of the Iranian Teachers’ Trade Association, which has never been legalised by the Iranian government. In May 2007, my mother was one of the few female teachers arrested when teachers gathered in front of the Parliament in Tehran to claim better rights and status. She was detained in the Evin prison and condemned by the Islamic Revolutionary Court. In July 2007, my father took a delegation to the Congress of Education International in Berlin. He was interrogated for days upon his return and his passport seized for years. In September of that same year, my father was reported missing when visiting union members in the province of Isfahan. For World Teachers Day, on 5 October, my parents’ apartment and that of other union leaders were searched by agents of the Ministry of Intelligence. Computers and papers, related among others to the affiliation to Education International and to Teacher’s Pen were confiscated. 

Because of their union engagement, my family received public death threats. Once, a teacher close to the Iranian regime said that he will “burn my father’s home and family, stitch his mouth and kill him”. This was not the first time my parents were subject to such threats. The authorities never acted to protect their safety.
Over the years, Education International (EI) has consistently denounced the fact that teachers are deprived of freedom of association guaranteed under Convention 87 of the International Labour Organisation. The teacher associations are still banned, and teacher unionists are still detained. The violations of rights have been duly documented in a complaint to the ILO Committee on Freedom of Association (case 2566). EI has also launched a new case to request the release of at least fifteen teacher unionists where names are known, dozens of others being presumably detained as well. This new wave of arrests follows the monthly protests of teachers throughout the country.

I was born and grew up in Ahvaz, an ancient city in the province of Khuzestan. This province produces 90% of the crude oil of Iran. We lived in a zone called the Polish camp where Poles displaced after World War II used to live. I was born in 1982 during the Iran-Iraq war while the city was evacuated under the bombing of Saddam Hussein. My parents moved to Tehran in 1988 when the war was over. My life in a giant city like Tehran was not easy, but thanks to the continuing support of my parents (especially my mother Soraya), I successfully graduated in Mathematics, Physics, and Applied Science from the Danish High School in 2000. One year later, on 20 July 2001, while I was attending a small gathering in the North of Tehran, I was shot in the leg by a Pasdaran (Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution). The Pasdaran Army took me to the military hospital for a surgical operation which would be followed by additional operations and months of physiotherapy treatment. However, the news of my shooting was censored in the media because the military was responsible for the attack. The assault was never officially recorded.

In 2002, a year after the Pasdaran shot me, I was arrested by the security forces for launching a student demand for additional study rooms in the University of Arak where I was studying Industrial Engineering. When I later transferred to the University of Tehran, I suffered further intimidation from the Security Centre of Tehran’s University because of my activism and “illegal” publications challenging the Iranian regime propaganda. As from 2003 and the foundation of the teacher union magazine by my parents, I contributed articles and photographs. In 2006, I was arrested for releasing an article in the Teacher’s Pen and distributing the magazine in several provinces of Iran. I was arrested again in 2006 for releasing an article in the Teacher's Pen and participating in the teachers' demonstration in front of the Iranian Parliament.

In January 2007, I graduated with a Bachelor of Science, however my thesis on the Education Management Information System in Iran was rejected and censored because of its critique of the education policy of the Iranian regime. That was followed by being deprived of my right to study in Iran.

On 26 April 2009, I was arrested again during a short teachers' gathering in Baharestan Square convened by teachers from Lorestan and Kermanshah demanding permanent contracts. After some days of interrogation and solitary confinement, I was condemned to one-year imprisonment charged for “Propaganda Against the Sacred Regime of the Islamic Republic of Iran”, “Disturbing Public Opinion”, and “Disordering the Public Order”. The security police transferred me into the political ward of the Evin Prison. In July 2009, and while I was in detention, another judge from the Islamic revolutionary court added 6 months detention for my participation in the teacher rallies of 2006. I was, however, released on 23 December 2009 and invited by the Government of Italy, UNESCO and UN Habitat as a youth delegate of Iran to the first Youth Meeting for a Sustainable Future held in Bari, Italy. The Forum brought together over 500 youth delegates from 90 countries. I asked for asylum. I moved to Piemont and applied at the Polytechnic University of Turin where I graduated with a Master’s of Science in Engineering and Management.

My parents are still committed teacher unionists, while aged 65 and 63, respectively, and suffering many health problems as consequences of their ill treatment during their times in detention.

The trade union situation in Iran remains very complicated. In 2015, my father and other Iranian teacher union leaders were denied participation in the 7th World Congress of Education International. Participation in these international gatherings is very important for Iranian teachers as it provides an opportunity to talk about the conditions of teachers and challenges in the education system. Not only are union freedoms and collective bargaining denied (official organisations exist but they are merely implementing Iranian regime decisions), academic freedom is restricted, schools are unsafe, especially in the rural regions, minorities are discriminated against, there is gender segregation and no respect for diversity.

In conclusion, I would like to highlight that my parents' commitment to struggle and fight for human rights in Iran continues and international solidarity remains vital.

by Andrew King, EI Media & Communications Coordinator

When Noor Adam stood at the front of the room, perfectly composed and calm wearing a stylish wool coat to speak with union leaders and the minister of education, it was hard not to be impressed by the 14-year-old from Ethiopia. And then he spoke.
Having lived in Sweden since he was 11, Noor was wise well beyond his teenage years. In Swedish he recounted his harrowing journey that took him from conflict in Ethiopia to what must have seemed a world away in Sweden. With a mother too sick to care for him and his father nowhere in sight, he was forced to fend for himself at the age of eight. Unable to afford school fees, Noor endured physical abuse at the hands of those much older than him. Then, one day, he fled.
“Sweden provides second chances,” he said, although challenges remain. “I longed to go to school.”
An education, once out of the question for the aspiring football player before arriving in Stockholm, little did he know how much his life would change. Now, after moving from school to school, he has settled into one of the most incredible places I have ever experienced: Fryshuset.
Located in the south of Stockholm, Fryshuset is a living, breathing social project. From its roots as a youth centre launched by Anders Carlberg in 1984, the onetime slaughterhouse has expanded far beyond the vision of its founder.

“Young people through passion can change the world”

Today, Fryshuset, which welcomes 40,000 visitors a month, is home to both a primary and secondary school, which host 1,200 students, in addition to its incredible sports and youth centre. This is a place that does not judge where children are from, or where on the economic spectrum they hail. At the heart of the project is passion. Students combine their studies with sport, dance, arts and music. Teachers and staff believe that preparing young people for life goes far beyond the classroom.
In Sweden for Education International’s Refugee Education Conference, I joined EI’s General Secretary, Fred van Leeuwen, the President of the Swedish teachers’ union Lararforbundet, Johanna Jaara Astrand, and the Minister of Education, Gustav Fridolin, who once worked at Fryshuset, for a tour of what is known as the ‘world’s largest youth centre.’
What began as an initiative to help society, just keeps on growing. Staff told us that Fryshuset is the place to come for people who don’t fit in. Migrants, refugees, children with learning challenges and those who far exceed the norm, it is a place to belong. The goal of the centre and schools is inclusion – to allow all to be a part of the bigger group, whether in the classroom, on the basketball court or in society at large.
When Sweden was pressed to find accommodation for scores of refugee families, the centre opened its doors to more than 300 people to sleep in the gymnasium where the place and its people infused the newcomers with energy. Every day, for three days, 100 refugee children danced outside together to music. Here, passion creates passion.
When immigrant students arrive at Fryshuset, they enter an intensive language programme, but are always integrated with regular students. At these schools, no one is left out.
After Noor spoke with us, it was Angel Bahrami’s turn. At 16, the Iranian-born aspiring politician spent seven years at the school before moving on to complete her studies. But she says that she probably still spends just as much time at the centre now. For Angel, a high-achieving student, her love of books and study quickly led to bullying at previous schools. Fryshuset changed that.
“Everyone is treated equally,” she said, adding that the centre and the school have “changed me as a person.” Admitting that she was once terrified of speaking in public, the now confident and well-spoken young woman says that Fryshuset teaches students how to deal with life. “It’s not just about good grades. You need to know what to do with them.” After listening to both Noor and Angel, it is clear that the centre is preparing youth for far more than just tests.
As I walked back to the main foyer to call a taxi, young people gathered around a lounge area, full of couches with a stage against the far wall. Hip hop blasted from the speakers and teens danced. A mix of nationalities, ages, languages, and passions all coming together without judgement. As one young man from Afghanistan approached me for a photo, his proof of meeting a Canadian, it was really me who wanted to be in a photo with him. To stick around and really learn something.



By Fernando M. Reimers, Professor of the Practice of International Education, Harvard Graduate School of Education.

I write these notes on the flight back from Stockholm to Boston, having just participated in the Education International Refugee Education Conference (21-22 November 2016). 

A hands on conference, designed to provide shared knowledge, to engage in dialogue and to construct together actionable steps to advance the education of refugees, this gathering modeled the potential within reach of creating collective intelligence, by making explicit and visible what teachers, union leaders and other practitioners lready know, and together designing solutions based on that knowledge. 

This format led to valuable products, some of which I will summarize below, but also modeled for participants the ways in which unions and their partners can engage their membership in active and participatory processes of design thinking that help develop actionable plans and implementation strategies, moving the profession from understanding the challenge, to hope and clear action that can direct what to do on Monday morning.

Given the global nature of the Unions federated in Education International, the group that convened at the conference has the potential to become an improvement network, committing to the simultaneous implementation of the actions identified at the conference, with appropriate processes to evaluate their results so that these actions lead to rapid improvement cycles that expand the evidence base of which of these practices work best, in what context, for which children and at what cost.

The teaching profession sees with great moral clarity the need to step up and lead in advancing the education rights of refugees. Ideally in collaboration and with the support of governments, but ready to nudge and defy governments when this becomes necessary. 

Teachers and those leading their unions have the means to mobilize and make visible abundant professional knowledge about what are the relevant questions that need to be addressed in educating refugees, and to propose ways forward in addressing them. We can’t excuse inaction in lack of knowledge about what to do. 

Specific actionable steps to educate refugees effectively

In six workshops, the participants in the conference addressed some of the core questions and dilemmas in educating refugees. Those led to specific actionable steps which can now inform the development of specific national strategies and action plans. I summarize here the actions generated by two of those workshops, which I had the pleasure to facilitate.

The workshop supporting teachers addressed four interrelated topics:

a) How to address teacher shortages

The solutions proposed by this working group include short term measures to provide immediate relief to the unexpected demand for teachers, and long term measures that can help stabilize a system with adequate supply of teachers. These options consider essentially the situation of refugees who have already transitioned to host countries, and for whom the purpose of education is to support their integration into that society. The needs in settings which are transitional are likely to differ, and they were addressed by the next group in this workshop.

In the short term, the following options are proposed:

  • Develop multiple pathways into teaching, including opportunities for career switchers, with appropriate support so those entering the profession are adequately prepared.
  • Provide additional compensation to those teachers working with refugee students.
  • Provide extra support for students in high levels of need, which may require lower student teacher loads.

b) How to support teaching in refugee centers

This group focused on teaching in refugee centers and identified two key challenges, inadequate teaching facilities and shortages of adequately qualified teachers. This group developed the following recommendations:

  • Develop a supportive policy framework to accommodate voluntary teachers, contract teachers and casual teachers to accommodate the large demand for teachers in these settings and that allow the recruitment of more teachers and the integration of qualified refugee teachers.
  • Develop participatory processes in the camps with the involvement of key stakeholders, including refugee students, parents, teachers and support staff to identify needs and develop a contextually relevant strategy which mobilizes existing assets in the camp.
  • Map existing resources in the camp which can support education of refugee children, including space, personnel, opportunities for community partnerships and that recognize and build the agency of refugees themselves and empowers them. Adopt an appreciative inquiry mindset, loot for things that are positive and good in the setting.
  • Develop multidisciplinary approaches to teaching that enable teachers to teach out of field and across the curriculum.
  • Review the curriculum so that it is contextually relevant, helps students develop skills that empower them in that setting and build the resiliency for their continued journey until resettlement. Develop competency based curriculum that builds competencies for conflict resolution and peace building, vocational and technical skills, music and sports, life skills, including those that allow students to heal from the trauma experienced in their journey. 
  • Ensure availability of facilities, bathrooms, teaching materials, that can support effective deployment of the pedagogies mentioned above.
  • Give serious consideration to integrating refugee children into mainstream schools, rather than segregating them into schools for refugees in camps or otherwise.

c) How to provide effective professional development and support to teachers working with refugees

This group identified the following core competencies which teachers educating refugee students should attain:

  • Confidence and ability to teach in a multilingual and culturally diverse classroom.
  • Empathy with and high expectations for culturally and racially diverse students.
  • Capacity to foster the socio-emotional development of students who have been traumatized by conflict or by the experience of migration.
  • Versatility in the notions of inclusion and integration and the capacity to negotiate those goals with other key stakeholders and to translate those into effective curriculum and pedagogical practices.

The group proposed the following as actions that could help teachers gain those competencies:

  • A whole school approach to learning and teaching that includes children and parents.
  • Time for professional development and to share good practices
  • Effective parental involvement
  • Effective involvement of teacher unions with a focus on the development of effective pedagogies and effective teacher support.
  • Creating communities of learning, including using technology to document good pedagogical practices and to facilitate exchanges with teachers in schools bridging geographic distance.
  • Effective professional development for instruction in multilingual classrooms.
  • Continued professional development.

d) How to provide refugees who are teachers work opportunities.

The working group sees this option as a valuable asset based approach to address the shortage of teachers. Two barriers, however, need to be overcome: refugee teachers need to obtain the necessary qualifications to be accredited to teach in the host country, and they need to develop the language proficiency to be able to teach in that country. The goal of engaging refugee teachers should be to support them in a developmental trajectory that leads them to meet these two conditions. The following six actions can be deployed along that trajectory:

  • Having them teach in teams with host country teachers. They can in this way serve as cultural resources to communicate with refugees, while gaining valuable experience and support that allows them to professionalize.
  • Providing mentorship and support.
  • Hire them as teacher assistants, who work under the supervision of a fully accredited teacher. It is important to protect them from potential exploitation in relationships that stall their progress towards full qualification.
  • Create bespoke programs, competency based, that allow multiple pathways to gaining and demonstrating the necessary competencies to receive accreditation.
  • Involve teacher unions in the mobilization and development of this new teacher force.
  • Assist them in finding documents which accredit the education completed in the home country, so they can receive equivalencies when appropriate.


The workshop confronting the professional challenge addressed four interrelated topics. The first two pertain specifically to supporting refugee students, while the last two refer to the education of all students, refugees and non-refugees alike:

a) Supporting the development of host country language and values

In what way language development will be supported will depend on the policy framework and goals of the country. At a minimum, refugee children will be supported to gain the language of instruction of the host country. It would be desirable if they could also be supported to gain and maintain proficiency in their mother tongue, as this would expand the linguistic assets of the host country. Supportive actions for effective language development would include using teaching assistants with mother tongue for provisional support or maintenance.

Teachers need also to engage in frequent and effective dialogue with parents that can help them appreciate and communicate respect of the home culture and values, while helping the family navigate and access the codes of participation and power in the host country.

b) Personalization of instruction, using adaptive technologies

Personalization is a cornerstone of good education for all children, the most effective way to recognize that learners are individuals with unique interest, backgrounds and strengths. Given the heterogenous experiences and backgrounds of refugee children, personalization is especially needed to teach them. 

The group proposed three recommendations to achieve this:

  • Develop teacher capacities and appropriate assessment instruments that enable the development of an individualized learning plan for each refugee student;
  • Teacher autonomy and competency to support the language development of students in the mother tongue as well as language of the host country, the capacity to communicate through the common languages of music, sports.
  • A social and institutional context that provides teachers a community for learning, support and continuous improvement, with colleagues and members of the community, adequate support personnel, (such as social workers, psychologists and others) who can provide  holistic attention to the needs of refugees and make appropriate linkages with other agencies that can support the needs of their families.

c) Educating the whole child

In a world of increasing complexity and rapid change, education systems must help students develop a wide range of capabilities, not only cognitive, but also social and emotional. To achieve this, the curriculum needs to first explicitly name the competencies in these various domains that it aims to develop, and then map backwards the pedagogical sequences and instructional activities that will provide effective opportunities to develop those competencies. The following four activities were proposed to help students develop such curriculum and effective pedagogies:

  • Teach teaching. Restructure the work of teaching so it is collaborative, across subjects, project based, and deploying innovative pedagogies.
  • Teacher coaching. Use multiple modalities of professional development, not just short courses, which are common, but also coaching and mentoring, school based professional development, self studies, shadowing other teachers and team teaching.
  • Develop appropriate linkages for frequent interaction across teachers in various classrooms in various schools, and also between school staff and communities and other organizations of civil society, such as agencies that provide support services to students and their families.
  • Involve students actively in their own education, including in identifying learning needs and devising learning activities to meet those needs.

d) Advancing global citizenship Education

How refugee children integrate into host societies is contingent not only in what skills and competencies they themselves gain, but in how other members of the society think of them. Helping all students understand the common humanity they have with students from varied cultural, ethnic and religious backgrounds, including refugees, is a goal of a cosmopolitan education in the 21st century. The group working on this topic formulated three recommendations:

  • Develop global citizenship curriculum across disciplines and at all grade levels which can support effective global citizenship. Different systems may follow diverse pathways to do this, some may adopt a national global citizenship curriculum, others may adopt national standards, others may create processes that invite the creation of multiple global citizenship curricula. 
  • Create a global citizenship portal with resources that can support initiatives across countries, and that enable and support cross-country exchange of experience and collaboration.
  • Develop appropriate linkages with academia, international development institutions, and other organizations that can support high quality global citizenship curriculum and professional development.



By Francine Menashy, University of Massachusetts Boston

Education in contexts of humanitarian crisis is a multi-faceted issue, which can be addressed from a range of perspectives—the classroom, the school, the nation. At the recent Refugee Education Conference hosted by Education International in Stockholm, Sweden, I moderated a workshop where participants discussed refugee education through the most overarching lens: the global perspective. 

Participants represented a range of countries and professional backgrounds, including school teachers, administrators, and representatives from unions, ministries of education, and UN agencies. Four roundtables focused on different elements to the global perspective on refugee education. For example, one group focused on global conventions on refugee rights, and brainstormed strategies that could improve countries’ ratification and implementation records on such international declarations as the Sustainable Development Goals and the recent New York Declaration from this past September’s UN Refugee and Migration Summit.  

Another roundtable discussed how to re-frame perceptions of refugees as blessings instead of burdens—a direct response to the media and political rhetoric that readily portrays refugees in a negative light. This group targeted the ways in which refugees can contribute to host communities and their economies. 

Participants discussed the unique needs of unaccompanied minors and how to support them within communities and classrooms, in line with global conventions that have been established to protect them. And another roundtable addressed the urgency for adequate and sustainable funding for education in contexts of humanitarian crisis, a topic of urgent importance given the current climate of diminishing bilateral aid to education.

After hours of engaged debate and discussion, each roundtable developed a few key recommendations for EI, its affiliates, and the educational community more widely. For example, Education International and its affiliates were encouraged to engage in campaigns that aim to turn the tide on public opinion on refugees by shifting their communication strategies, particularly through social media and in collaboration with other stakeholders and NGOs. 

Participants recommended that education unions work to support regional, national, and local authorities in ensuring that unaccompanied minors are provided with effective protection and assistance in a comprehensive and sustainable way, in line with international conventions and by promoting cross border collaboration between relevant authorities to enable efficient family reunification processes. 

Education stakeholders were encouraged to work with wider social service agencies to ensure an effective transition for refugees into their host communities, with education at the core of all support services. And with a view to increase aid to education in all global contexts, Education International was asked to better support affiliates in lobbying for more contributions to the Education Cannot Wait Fund and to pressure donor governments to reach the 0.7% goal in development assistance budgets.

More people have been driven from their homes than at any time since UNHCR records began. One in every 113 people globally is now either an asylum-seeker, internally displaced person, or a refugee. Millions of children—each of whom holds the right to be educated—have an uncertain road ahead. In the face of these staggering statistics, the global community can take responsibility through a range of actions and advocacy efforts that address the urgent need for refugee education from the global perspective.


by Philippa Cordingley, Chief Executive of CUREE (Centre for the Use of Research and Evidence in Education)

I feel greatly honoured to be asked to facilitate a workshop at the inspiring Education International conference focused on “Providing education to refugee children from conflict areas in the Middle East: fast track to Equal Opportunities and integration”. I also feel a little nervous about doing a good enough job.

Pouring over the international research I have been struck by how little we really know; we are still at the stage of describing and classifying approaches to education for migrant students with the capacity to provide the fast track which is the conference’s goal. In many cases we lack even the information to make the numbers, needs, development paths and successes of migrant students visible.

The excellent briefing pack provides us with a compelling bird’s eye view of the landscape, for example it points out that “education and language training will indeed be critical (to integration) as half the refugee population are children and many of them are unaccompanied minors”. 

It also makes a compelling case for the central position of education in supporting inclusion and integration. But the situation is highly differentiated. The research suggests that the  success of education in contributing to inclusion and integration for migrant students depends on a number of factors including the distance from the migrant students’ home nation, the history of settlement of migrant communities in the host nation, national and local policies in relation to education, migration and integration for less advantaged pupils more generally and last, but by no means least, the density of the migrant population. There is a strong tendency for migrant students to fare significantly better where they are present as a critical mass. But I found nowhere in my (admittedly rapid) exploration of the research of the relationship between cause and effect with regard to the effect of density.  Do migrant students end up in countries whose education systems offer them better support, or do the migrant students help those countries learn to do that and give it priority only when they are present as a critical mass?

There are complicated challenges arising from how well local education systems address disadvantage and achievement in the first place.  PISA helps us understand just how big the effects of disadvantage can be. In PISA 2012, age 15 reading and mathematics achievement for students from the richest and poorest socio-economic quintile in much of EU was equivalent to a loss of 2-3 years of schooling for those in disadvantaged communities. In Belgium, Hungary, Bulgaria, France, and Slovak Republic, the difference is greater than 3 years. In countries with large performance gaps, a key reason for the gap is socio economic segmentation of schools, for example, by school type. And migrant students very often end up in schools with concentrations of other disadvantaged students which tend to also be the lowest achieving areas. So the risk of cementing a vicious circle of disadvantage is real. 

There is also abundant evidence of shortages of:

  • teachers with experience of working successfully with migrant students, 
  • textbooks with language and other support to meet migrant students’ needs  
  • training for teachers in supporting  language learning
  • access to Teaching Assistants who speak migrant students’ first language
  • lack of understanding of or scope for mobilising  the curriculum to help all students understand  the importance of integration and inclusion.

What is heartening is the strong, positive and widespread message about the extent to which teachers can and are committed to making a difference. The EI report also points out that “for educators to successfully help migrant students integrate, they must have the professional freedom to select and use appropriate teaching and learning tools and have these not prescribed by education authorities”. I would argue that in this, as in most other contexts, what such agency depends upon is a focus not on courses or training,  that is on professional development done to teachers, but on support for professional learning done by them that draws in the information and support they need to meet their aspirations for their students. 


Sally Kendall, Caroline Gulliver, Kerry Martin, CfBT education Trust, intervention study, Supporting asylum seeker and refugee children, accessible here.

Refugee Studies Centre Oxford Department of International Development University of Oxford, Ensuring quality education for young refugees from Syria (12-25 years): a mapping exercise (2014).   

Improving access to education for Asylum seekers, refugee children in central Europe, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Regional Representation for Central Europe Budapest, (July 2011), accessible here.

Christian Bodewig, Education is key to integrating refugees in Europe, (2015), accessible here.

"Education, Participation, Integration – Erasmus and Refugees", (2016) Speech by Thomas Rachel, Parliamentary State Secretary to the Federal Minister of Education and Research in Essen, Zeche Zollverein, accessible here.

Making Integration Work, refugees and others in need of protection, OECD (2016), accessible here.