Work visa / permit requirements

All foreign nationals are required to secure an Alien Employment Permit through the Philippine Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE). The form, verifying the “non-availability of a person in the Philippines who is competent, able and willing at the time of application,” also requires the employer’s endorsement.

National regulations

Employment terms and conditions

As outlined in Book I of the Labor Code, job transfer or change in employer must be approved by the Secretary of Labor. Violation can lead to three year’s jail time followed by deportation.

Book III of the Labor Code explains information on working conditions in the Philippines, including for

  • Hours and compensation, including the minimum wage
  • Rest, vacation and holiday pay
  • Maternity leave and family planning services, as well as other women-oriented policies

Book IV of the Labor Code discusses health, safety and social welfare benefits, with details concerning

  • Medical and dental services
  • Occupational health and safety
  • Social security through the State Insurance Fund, with compulsory coverage for employers and employees under 60 years of age
  • Disability and injury benefits

Information on taxation

The Tax Code of 1997 stipulates that income will be taxed, including for foreign nationals with income from within the Philippines. For non-resident aliens not engaged in trade or business, a flat 25% is paid for all sources of income within the Philippines.

Health requirement

Since 1995, the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth), run through the government, covers about 80% of residents through contributions from employers and individuals. Otherwise, most Filipinos obtain health care through health maintenance organizations (HMOs), which set requirements on participating patients and providers to control costs and quality or other private insurance companies.

Working as a teacher

Professional qualifications requirements

Only citizens and nationals are eligible to work in Philippine public schools.

According to the Republic Act No. 4670 (1966), also called the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers, to qualify to teach in the Philippines, a professional must have earned

  • A Bachelor’s degree to teach kindergarten and elementary grades
  • A Bachelor’s degree in Education [OR] a bachelor’s of arts or science with at least 18 credits in education to teach secondary grades
  • A Bachelor’s degree in the subject specialization with at least 18 credits in education to teach secondary vocational or two year technical courses
  • A Master’s degree in a relevant specialization to teach collegiate courses (except vocational)

Non-citizens may be hired to work at private schools.

Conditions of service

See the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers, or program policies.

Types of employment available for teachers

International recruitment agencies place professionals in private international schools and some English as a Second language (ESL) positions. These agencies usually require TESOL or TEFL certification 

Support structures for recruited teachers

Teachers’ Unions

National Alliance of Teachers and Office Workers (SMP-NATOW) 

Alliance of Concerned Teachers (ACT) 

Philippine Public School Teachers' Association (PPSTA) 

Teachers' Organisation of the Philippine Public Sector (TOPPS)

Federation of Free Workers - Trade Federation VIII (FFW)

Basic Education Sector Teachers Federation (BESTFED)

 

Work visa / permit requirements

There are multiple forms of employment visas for India, granted for 2 year or the period of the employment contract, whichever is less. Visas may be offered for up to five years for technicians / experts coming from countries with bilateral agreements. To apply, one needs proof of employment which specifies the appointment, as well as terms and conditions of employment. The general application process includes:

  1. Completing forms online
  2. Maintain the File Number generated through the online system
  3. Scheduling an appointment with an Indian Mission (embassy, consular office, etc)

Once in India, the visa is renewable (extendable):

MHA – Visa Facilitation Centre

NDCC-II Building, Jai Singh Road off Parliament Street

New Delhi – 110001

(Open 9:30am-12pm)

Following the Registration of Foreigners Act (1939) and the Registration of Foreigners Rules (1992), people entering India with visas for more than 180 days (and those with a special “required registration endorsement) must be registered within 14 days of arriving in India with the appropriate Foreigners Regional Registration Officer (FRRO) or Foreigners Registration Officer (FRO) in the jurisdiction where one intends to stay. 

Exception: Pakistani nationals must register within 24 hours of arrival

Exception: ALL Afghan nationals must register within 30 days of arrival except those entering with visas valid for 30 days or less, who should provide an Indian address to the FRRO / FRO

Required documents include

  • Valid passport and visa, along with 4 passport-size color photograhs (4cm x 4cm with white background)
  • Registration form
  • Three photocopies each of the photo page, page indicating validity and page bearing stamp of arrival from Indian Immigration in the passport
  • Undertaking letter from Indian host / sponsor along with a form of identity (passport, election card, official identity card, PAN, etc)
  • Proof of residence
  • Three copies of terms and conditions of contract assignment, including salary, designation, tenure of employment, etc
  • Three copies of PAN card or application for PAN card
  • Forwarding letter of employer with authorized signature mentioning name, designation, land and mobile phone numbers

This process should yield a complete Embarkation / Disembarkation card (D/E card) and certificate of registration. These will be forfeited upon departure.

National regulations

Employment terms and conditions

The Ministry of Labour & Employment (MLE) outlines laws regulating 

Health requirement

There is no health-related requirement to apply for a position in India.

Working as a teacher

Professional qualifications requirements 

See specific programs to determine requirements and eligibility.

Types of employment available for teachers

  • Public and government-supported schools are unlikely to hire migrant teachers
  • Migrant teachers are often accepted to work in summer programs, language schools and International schools, as well as English as a second language (ESL) positions

Support structures for recruited teachers

Teachers’ Unions

Working Visa/Permit requirements

If you are thinking of coming over to teach in the UK it is a good idea to check the UK Border Agency website frequently for current and up-to-date information about coming to the UK for the purpose of work. 

For those teachers who are not eligible for entry based on their UK residency status, ancestral background or passport from a member country of the European Economic Area (EEA), other entry clearances are available under the tiered points-based immigration system. 

  • Australians, Canadians, Japanese and New Zealanders aged between 18 and 30 can apply for a Working Holiday Visa (Tier 5 – Youth Mobility) and work as a teacher on a supply basis but not on a permanent basis (a day-to-day or long-term contract placement). If you wish to stay longer than your (Tier 5) Working Holiday Visa allows you can seek a permanent position with sponsorship before your Working Holiday Visa is expired.

The following tiers are most likely to apply to teachers wishing to teach in the UK:

Tier 1 Highly Skilled Workers: Tier 1 allows highly skilled people to come to the UK to look for work or self-employment opportunities. Unlike Tier 2, Tier 1 visa holders do not need a job offer or sponsorship to apply. Points are given for qualifications, previous earnings, previous UK experience, age, language skills and proof of savings.

Tier 2 Sponsored Skilled Workers: Tier 2 offers routes into the UK for skilled workers who have a job offer from a UK-based employer. The employer must be a registered sponsor, recognised by the UK Border Agency. In addition to meeting the points criteria for this tier, workers will need to present a certificate of sponsorship from their employer.

  • Sponsorship from an employer: Teachers have been added to the list by DES (Department for Education and Skills) of skills and vocations experiencing a shortage. This means that if you do not qualify for any of the other visa or passport types you may be able to get a sponsored work permit where an employer applies for a work permit on your behalf for a specific position.

You will need to consult the online points calculator provided by the UK Border Agency to find out whether or not you are eligible for any of the entry clearances in the new tiered system. Relevant and up-to-date information on different types of working visas and their application requirements can be found here.

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office provides information regarding foreign embassies in the UK.

National regulations 

Terms and conditions

The UK Government provides information on terms and conditions of employment for workers in the United Kingdom, in particular about:

Contracts and Working Hours, including information on the different types of contracts (fixed-term), the employment status, workers\' rights (in particular for agency workers) and changes to contracts.

Redundancies, Dismissals and Disciplinaries, including information on procedures to solve a workplace dispute, how to calculate redundancy pay, your rights as an employee (reasons for dismissal, notice periods, payment arrangements, helpline, etc.).

Your rights at Work and Trade Unions, including information about joining a trade union, your rights against discrimination and bullying/harassment, pregnant employees’ rights, etc.

Taxation

The information provided by the UK Government guides you on how to pay income tax in the United Kingdom. UK tax and National Insurance will be deducted directly from your fortnightly pay (i.e. every two weeks). This is termed PAYE (Pay As You Earn). The current basic rate of tax is 20%. Most employees will be entitled to a Personal Tax Allowance of £6,475 per tax year (current rates). This allowance is not given all at once, but spread over the 52 weeks of the tax year. After the taxable allowance, any remainder is taxed at 20%. National Insurance contributions will also be deducted from your salary. Altogether, you will pay approximately 30% of your salary in tax and National Insurance contributions.

Health requirements

Migrant Teachers who intend working in the United Kingdom for a period longer than six months may have to obtain a health certificate confirming that they are free from infectious tuberculosis (TB) before submitting their Visa Application. Nationals of countries listed in Annex T of the Immigration Rules must produce a medical certificate from an approved UK Border Agency showing that they are free from active pulmonary TB.  For further information on the above, please visit UK Border Agency website.

Working as a teacher

Professional requirements

If you qualified as a teacher inside the European Union, mobility laws apply. This means you can access teaching positions in the same way as home-trained teachers. 

  • From 1 April 2012, teachers who qualified in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America (USA) will be recognised as qualified teachers and awarded qualified teacher status (QTS) in England without being required to undertake any further training or assessment. They must apply to the Teaching Agency for the award of QTS before they can be recognised as qualified teachers.

If you qualified as a teacher overseas and outside the European Economic Area (EEA), you may be eligible to teach in the UK as a temporary, unqualified teacher for up to four years before you must achieve QTS. 

  • OTT four-year rule: The four-year rule for overseas trained teachers (OTTs) states that you can teach for up to four years before you have to be awarded QTS. If you have not achieved QTS in this time, you can no longer teach. The four years start from the first day that you teach in a maintained school or non-maintained special school in England, and includes any time out of service. If the four-year rule applies to you, you will need to complete a programme such as a flexible PGCE to gain QTS, or gain employment in an independent school to continue teaching.

Employment-based initial teacher training (EBITT) programmes are on-the-job programmes that allow you to qualify as a teacher while you work

  • You may be eligible for a training grant, please contact your employment-based initial teacher training (EBITT) provider for further information.

To be eligible for QTS, you must be qualified as a teacher overseas and working as an unqualified teacher in a school in England. In addition, if you qualified outside the European Economic Area (EEA), you will need:

1. a qualification equivalent to a UK bachelors degree

2. to demonstrate that you meet a standard equivalent to GCSE grade C in mathematics and English

3. to demonstrate a standard equivalent to a grade C in a science GCSE if you intend to teach primary or key stage 2/3 (ages 7-14)

Visit the National Recognition Information Centre (NARIC) website to find out whether your qualifications are of an equivalent level to UK GCSEs and an undergraduate degree

If you can demonstrate that you already meet all of the standards for QTS, without the need for any further training, you may apply for Assessment Only (AO) route to QTS. The AO requirements and supporting advice are available from the AO guidance. If you would like to apply for the AO route, you can apply directly to an approved provider.

Conditions of service 

The national Teaching Agency provides information on what being a teacher is actually like: timetable, the teaching week, teachers’ stories, etc. Also, please visit the Teaching Agency\'s Facebook page where you can talk to actual teachers.

The Pay Scale is different for qualified and unqualified teachers (see paragraph above to know more about professional qualifications and the Qualified Teacher Status).

Pay Scale for Unqualified Teachers from 1st September 2012 is:

- London fringe: £16,856–£26,052

- Outer London: £18,789–£27,992

- Inner London: £19,893–£29,088

- Rest of England and Wales: £15,817–£25,016

  • Where you fit into these scales will depend on your position, experience and location, as well as on your individual school.

The UK Government provides annual detailed information about Qualified and Unqualified Teachers Pay scales, allowances and conditions of employment in the School Teachers Pay and Conditions Document. 

Type of employment available for teachers

Employment for teachers in the UK exists in a wide range of school types, variations in contracts and for all subject areas. 

Teaching positions can be available in either of the following institutions:

- State Funded Schools – state funded institutions maintained by both the local and central government. These schools are managed by LEA’s (local education authorities) OR

- Independent Schools – do not receive state funding and are largely supported and maintained by parents.

Complaint mechanisms 

The UK Government provides specific information about workers’ rights and unions, as well as a specific section on agency workers’ rights and where to get help.

Working visa/Permit requirements

Teachers generally seek to teach in Australia on either a temporary short stay or longer term basis or to permanently migrate to pursue their profession. Different requirements apply depending on the choice being pursued.

It is a good idea to check the website maintained by the Australian Government Department of Immigration and Border Protection for all relevant information on different types of visa and their application requirements: http://www.immi.gov.au/ 

Further assistance can be sought from a registered migration agent authorised by the Australian Government’s Office of the Migration Agents Registration Authority at: https://www.mara.gov.au/ 

Non-Australian teachers typically seek and obtain teaching work either because they are sponsored by a particular employer (eg, an independent school or group of schools run by a religious faith), are nominated by a state government agency or are participating in a staff exchange programme. They can also seek and obtain a teaching position independently. There are numerous different visa categories. All however require the particular occupation to be listed on the Skilled Occupations List. Many visas are subject to certain age requirements and suitable skills assessment, including competency in English.

It should be noted that for school teaching purposes there is generally an oversupply of generalist primary school teachers and consequently that occupation is not on the Skilled Occupations List.

National regulations 

Employment terms and conditions in Australia

Australia is a federal State, ie, there are both a national government and some 6 state or territory governments.

Private sector employment (including teaching in non-government or private schools) is covered by the national workplace relations system. This involves minimum statutory conditions of employment (National Employment Standards) which  can be supplemented by national industrial Awards and collective bargaining agreements under the federal Fair Work Act. 

Information on the Fair work system and the National Employment Standards (NES) can be found here

Public sector employment by state government agencies, eg, teaching in state or government public schools, is generally covered by each state’s separate industrial relations system and the policies of each government’s own education department.

Typically there are industrial Awards and collective bargaining agreements covering teacher’s work in early childhood, schools and vocational education and training. These instruments specify minimum wages, hours of work and attendance, Leave and other ‘core’ terms and conditions of employment.

Information on Taxation in Australia

When you start working in Australia, you may need to get a tax file number (TFN). Without a TFN you will pay more tax. The main tax you (and everyone else) pay is income tax, charged on your income, such as salary and wages. Every year you lodge a tax return to tell the Australian government how much income you've received and how much tax you've paid. More information on taxes can be found on the Australian taxation office’s website

Health Requirements

All permanent visa applicants and some temporary visa applicants and in some circumstances, their dependents will be required to undergo health examinations as part of the visa application process.  

If you fail to meet the health requirement your visa may be refused, however this will depend on the visa subclass you applied for. Some visa subclasses allow a health waiver to be exercised in certain circumstances. More information is available here.  

Social Benefits

In Australia only citizens and people with permanent residency visas may claim social security benefits. With the exception of Medicare Australia, new residents are only eligible to claim social security benefits once they have been resident for 104 weeks, this is known as the Newly Arrived Resident's Waiting Period. Any period of residency counts towards this weekly total.

There are several Medicare payments and services which can help when you or your dependant family members use health care services or need medicine. These include Medicare bulk billing, the Medicare Safety Net, the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and the PBS Safety Net. These services give you access to free or low-cost medical, optical and hospital care, and access to cheaper prescription medicines.

The Department of Human services provide information for newly arrived residents. 

Working as a teacher in Australia 

Professional qualifications requirements

The Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) is the designated assessing authority for assessing the qualifications of non-Australian teachers applying for visas to work in Australia. Only occupations on the Skilled Occupations List are open to visa applicants.

The following teaching occupations are listed on the Skilled Occupation List (SOL) effective April 2014: 

  • Early childhood (pre-primary school) teacher,
  • Secondary school teacher,
  • Special needs teacher,
  • Teacher of the hearing/sight impaired
  • Special Education teachers

Applicants are advised to check the SOL applicable to their circumstances on the Department of Immigration and Border Protection website before applying to AITSL for an assessment. AITSL's assessment for migration (skills assessment) is one part of the Skilled Migration process.

Teacher Registration

To be employed as a teacher in a school, teachers must be registered in the state or territory in which they are employed.

While there are National Professional Standards for Teachers and standards for the Accreditation of Initial Teacher Education programs in Australia and administered by AITSL which operate to a achieve some uniformity, each state or territory has its own specific regulations for teacher registration. 

Teachers apply for registration directly to the state or territory teacher registration authority for registration and then subsequently to the various employing authorities, eg, state department of education or a particular private school, for any particular employment position.

Check with the relevant teacher registration board below:

Teachers Registration Board of Western Australia

Teachers Registration Board of the Northern Territory

Teachers Registration Board of South Australia

Queensland College of Teachers

New South Wales Institute of Teachers

Victorian Institute of Teaching

ACT Teacher Quality Institute 

Teachers Registration Board of Tasmania 

Once registered in one state or territory a teacher is able to apply to another teacher registration authority for registration in another state or territory and so gain employment there. This is known as ‘mutual recognition’.

AITSL provides useful information on the mutual recognition principle.

Another useful website provides  information for inter-state mutual registration and conditions of service for teachers in each state: http://www.aussieeducator.org.au/teachers/teacheremployment=2.html 

Types of Employment available for Teachers

Employment as a teacher, including in specialist roles, can be on a casual basis usually for relief, emergency, substitute or supply purposes.

More commonly it can be part-time or full time for a fixed term or temporary period of time or on an ongoing or permanent basis.

Schools may be government owned and run or owned and run by particular religious faiths or even be ‘non-denominational.’

Where to find Teaching Vacancies

Advertised positions are found from state education departments, independent systems and individual schools, in both print and internet media. Some apply to individual schools at a specific site [usually non-government] while others operate across regions or the whole state [usually the government system or one of the systemic groups such as the Catholic School System]. 

Support Structures for Recruited Teachers 

Teacher unions

Australian Education Union (AEU) 

National Tertiary Education Union (NTEU) 

Independent Education Union of Australia (IEU)  

 

Working Visa/Permit requirements

The United States Department of State and the Department of Labour are the two main bodies responsible for the issuance of Visas to immigrant teachers. There are two types of Visas for teachers working in the United States

1) The H-1B “Work” Visa is for professionals with “a body of highly specialized knowledge along with at least a bachelor’s degree”. Employers apply for it on behalf of professionals. Visa is valid for three years and is renewable once (maximum of six years of validity). 

The requirements that must be met for the Labour Condition Application to be approved are that employers must pay H-1B workers either the prevailing wage or the actual wage, whichever is higher and that the bargaining agent must be notified (more information on LCAs here). The employee can apply for Permanent Residence to the United States upon arrival and bring family (Visa H-4 is required).

The U.S. Department of Labour oversees the H-1B visa program, more information here

2) The J-1 “Exchange” Visa is for primary or secondary teachers who have a minimum of three years teaching experience and satisfy the standards of their state. Applicants must have significant ties to their country of origin (more information here). They are neither citizens nor residents of the United States and wishing to work in the United States. Professionals apply directly for the Visa, along with an eligible J-1 sponsor (search for sponsors). Visa is valid for one year and is renewable two times (maximum of three years of validity). The employee can apply for Permanent Residence to the United States upon arrival (although some source countries require a return residency period) and bring family (Visa J-2 is required).

The U.S. Department of State oversees the J-1 visa program, more information here

"Visa Pages" is a one-stop resource to find comprehensive information about the various non-immigrant visas U.S. employers use to bring temporary foreign workers from all over the world to work in the U.S. 

Complete list of all foreign embassies in Washington DC

National regulations 

Examples of key National Employment and Immigration regulations that could affect migrant teachers include:

Immigration & Nationality Act 

The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) makes it unlawful for any entity to employ any individual who is not authorized to work in the United States.

National Labour Relations Act 

The National Labour Relations Act (NLRA) prohibits most employers from discriminating against employees who choose to engage in (or to decline to engage in) any union-related activities. Protected activities include joining a union or asking others to join, banding together collectively for “mutual aid and protection” (whether or not a union is involved), seeking to deal on a group basis with the employer about working conditions; and engaging in other concerted activities for the purpose of negotiating more favourable employment terms. 

Fair Labour Standards Act

Also known as the “Wage/Hour” law, the Fair Labour Standards Act (FLSA) provides minimum wage requirements, overtime requirements, child labour regulations, and equal pay provisions for most employees.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act

Title VII prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex (gender), and national origin in hiring, employment (all terms, conditions and benefits), and termination. 

Age Discrimination in Employment Act

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) prohibits discrimination in hiring, employment or termination against applicants and employees age 40 and over with certain very limited exceptions. 

Equal Pay Act 

The Equal Pay Act (EPA) applies to all employers covered by the FLSA, and prohibits discrimination based on gender in the payment of wages for jobs of equal skill, effort and responsibility that are performed under similar working conditions. Exceptions are provided for pay differentials based on seniority, merit, or some other bona fide factor other than sex (e.g., education, training, specialized skills, and experience). 

Family & Medical Leave Act 

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) provides up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave when an employee or covered family member has a serious health condition that requires medical care or treatment and a physician certifies that an employee’s leave is necessary. 

Americans with Disabilities Act

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits employment discrimination against individuals with a disability if they can perform the essential functions of the job with no special accommodations, or if they can perform such functions with special accommodations which are “reasonable” based upon the size of the company, the nature of the job, and the costs of the accommodations. 

Occupational Safety & Health Act

The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) applies to most employers and imposes a general duty to maintain a safer working place/environment. 

Working as a teacher

Professional requirements

There are no national requirements to work as a teacher in the USA. Each American state has its own certification requirements. 

Conditions of service 

Wage and benefits rates vary widely by location.

Type of employment available for teachers

Each year, the U.S. Department of Education issues a list of nationwide teacher shortage areas, indexed by geography and content area.

Complaint mechanisms 

Many local unions have negotiated grievance and complaint mechanisms that may be able to assist recruited teachers in addressing concerns.

  • To learn more, contact your local union officials

The National Human Trafficking Resource Center provides a hotline for extreme cases (1-888-3737-888).